Rinpoche, Venerable Chuje
Tulku of Karma Kagyu and Nyingma lineages;
Spiritual Director of Samye Ling Tibetan Centre.
Former Abbot of Drolma Lhakhang monastery and
retreat complex, Tsawa Gang, East Tibet. Received
teachings from Jamgon Kongtrul of Shechen and
other great teachers. Game to Britain in 1960s.
1967: with Trungpa Rinpoche established Kagyu
Samye Ling Tibetan Centre in Johnstone House,
Langholm, Dumfries-shire, Scotland. After departure
of Trungpa Rinpoche for USA (c.1970), took charge
of the centre; has since founded centres in other
parts of the world (Spain, South Africa, etc).
Famous Indian scholar of profound learning. Arrived
in Tibet in 1038 and stayed until his death. Entirely
reformed the prevailing Buddhism, enforcing celibacy
in the existing Order and raised the level of
morality. Founded the Kadampa school ('those bound
by ordinance'). In the fifteenth century Tsong-khapa
again reformed this School renaming it Gelugpa.
Tibetan Buddhist, member of the school of the
11th-century reformer Atisha. He translated much
of the Buddhist sacred literature, including Tantra
texts, into classic Tibetan and possibly (c.1060)
made the definitive arrangement of the Kanjur
and Tanjur, the two basic Tibetan collections
of Buddhist principles.
de Koros, Alexander (1784-1842)
Hungarian pioneer of Tibetan studies. Born Transylvania;
son of Calvinist border guard. Inspired to look
for 'racial homeland' of Magyars. 1816-18: studied
Arabic, Turkish, English and Ethnology at Gottingen.
1819: set out for East on foot; never reached
Tibet but travelled and researched in frontier
regions (e.g. Ladakh). Obtained modest British
Government sponsorship; compiled the first Tibetan-English
dictionary and a Tibetan Grammar (both published
1834). 1837-42: Librarian of Asiatic Society,
Calcutta. 1842: set out again on quest for Magyar
racial home; died Darjeeling of malaria. His analysis
of the Kanjur and Tanjur was included in Waddell,
L.A., The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism (1894).
Various contributions to Journal of the Asiatic
Society of Bengal. Dictionary, Grammar and Coll
Writings representing Budapest 1984. 1920: Korosi
Csoma Tarasag (Society) founded, Budapest.
Lama, His Holiness the XIVth (Gyalwa Tenzin
Exiled spiritual and temporal leader of the Tibetan
people. Born 1935, Taktser, Amdo, East Tibet of
humble origins. Located and recognized as Dalai
Lama incarnation 2 years later via portents discerned
at the oracle lake (Lhama Lhatso). 1939: bought
to Lhasa. 1940: formally enthroned. Began education
at 6 years; at 24 years took preliminary exams at
Sera, Drepung and Ganden monastic university's;
final exams held at Jokhang ('Cathedral' of Lhasa)
during Monlam Festival; awarded Geshe Lharampa degree
with honours at age 25. At age 16 assumed full temporal
powers early because of Chinese Communist threat.
1954: went to Peking to hold discussions with Chinese
Communist leaders. 1956: visited India for 2500
Buddha Jayanti celebrations; held political discussions
with Pandit Nehru and Chou En-lai. 1959: left Tibet
following the Lhasa Uprising. Made unsuccessful
appeals to United Nations on behalf of Tibetan people.
1963: promulgated draft democratic constitution
for Tibet; since then has conducted government-in-exile
at Dharamasala, North India, in accordance with
this. Has also very successfully worked to resettle
100,000 Tibetan refugees and to preserve Tibetan
religion, culture, etc. In 1989 he was awarded the
Nobel Peace Prize. Widely travelled in both East
and West (though has never returned to his native
Tibet), has met political and spiritual leaders
(including two Popes, an Archbishop of Canterbury,
etc.), scientists, doctors, writers, philosophers
- and ordinary people. Has impressed people everywhere
with his (very Buddhist) message of peace and kindness:'
My religion is very simple - my religion is kindness.'
A spiritual leader of world rank. Books including
Opening the Eye of New Awareness; Kindness, Clarity
& Insight; My Land and My People (autobiographical)
and Freedom in Exile. Biographies: Great Ocean by
Roger Hicks and Ngakpa Chogyam and The Last Dalai
Lama, by Michael Harries Goodman.
Neel, Alexandra (1868-1969)
Pioneering French mystic, traveller and author.
Born Saint-Mande (East Suburb of Paris). Discovered
East religion and philosophy at Musee Guimet (Paris)
at age 23: 'My vocation was born there and then'.
Became singer with Opera Comique; later turned to
journalism. 1894: married Philippe Neel (pronounce
Nale) in Tunis; soon separated. In East for next
20 years. Met exiled XIIIth Dalai Lama in Darjeeling.
In Sikkim met Lama Yongden, her future travelling
companion and adopted son. Went into retreat in
Himalayan cave-hermitage; met Tibetan teachers who
taught her Tibetan language and Buddhist philosophy.
Ventured 3 times into Tibet, once reaching Shigatse
before being turned back. Subsequently left for
Burma, Sri Lanka and Japan, accompanied by Yongden;
then to Korea, China and Mongolia. Studied at Kumbum
monastery (East Tibet). 1924: became the first European
woman to enter Lhasa (in disguise). 1925:returned
to Europe, bought house in Digne (Haute Provence).
1937: returned to Asia, travelling via Transiberian
Railway to China. Japanese invasion of Manchuria
forced her westwards to Tatsienlu; spent most of
World War II there. Later returned to France via
India; subsequently engaged in study and writing
at Digne until died at age 100. 1964: Made Commander
de la Legion d'Honneur. Books in English including
With Mystics & Magicians, My Journey to Lhasa,
Tibetan Journey, A Tibetan Tale & Magic Secret
Oral Traditions of Tibetan Buddhism and Initiations
and Initiates in Tibet.
Important Nyingma Master and exponent of Dzogchen
Meditation. (1910-91), from Kham, East Tibet. Recognized
as mind incarnation of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (1820-92).
Studied under many distinguished lamas for all four
schools, notably Jamyang Khyentse Chokyi Lodro,
and spent 20 years in retreat. A Terton, has also
written many meditation texts and commentaries notable
for their poetic beauty. Travels extensively giving
teachings in Bhutan, Nepal, India and the West.
1976: to USA on invitation of Trungpa Rinpoche,
his pupil. 1983: to London at invitation of Sogyal
Rinpoche. Has also visited France, where he supervises
students undergoing long retreat. Has transmitted
teachings to Dalai Lama. Is rebuilding Shechen Monastic
University (formerly one of the great Nyingma centres
in Tibet) at Bodh Nath, Nepal.
Khyentse Rinpoche (Jamyang Thubten Chokui Gyatso)
Nyingma tulku: incarnation of Jamyang Khyentse Chokyi
Lodro: Born 1960; recognized by Dalai Lama. Received
training in all lineages of Tibetan Buddhism under
over 12 great masters, including Dalai Lama, Karmapa,
Sakya Trizin, Dudjom Rinpoche and Dingo Khyentse
Rinpoche. 1986: 1st visit to Europe and USA. Has
thriving centre in Australia.
Dr Walter Yeeling (1878-1965)
Pioneer translator of Tibetan Buddhist texts. Born
USA, educated University of Stanford, Oxford and
Rennes, specializing in folk-lore; met W.B. Yeats.
1911: 1st book: Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries.
An interest in the rebirth doctrine took him to
East. 1919: met Kazi Dawa-Samdup in Sikkim; collaborated
on translations of several texts, including The
Tibetan Book of the Dead, The Tibetan Book of the
Great Liberation, Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines
and Tibet's Great Yogi Milarepa. Died near Encinitas,
California at age 88 years. Biography: Pilgrim of
the Clear Light, by Ken Winkler.
Lama Anagarika (Anagarika Khamsum-Wangchuk;
E.L. Hoffmann; 1898-1985)
Pioneer Western exponent and expositor of Tibetan
Buddhism. Born Waldheim (old kingdom of Saxony)
of German father and Bolivian mother (family had
mining interests in Bolivia). Invalided out of World
War I. Studied Philosophy and Architecture at University
of Freiburg, later Archaeology; research in Mediterranean
area and North Africa. 1928: to Sri Lanka. 1929:
Anagarika ordination in Burma. 1929-31: studied
Pali. 1931: decisive turning point - encountered
Tibetan Buddhism in Darjeeling and met main guru,
Tomo Geshe Rinpoche. When Tomo Geshe Rinpoche died,
founded Arya Maitreya Mandala in his memory. 1930s:
pursued Buddhist Studies in Sikkim, Ladakah and
Tibet; also taught, lectured and practised art (was
gifted artist). During World War II: interned. 1947:
married British-educated Parsi photographer Li Gotami;
took Indian nationality. 1947-9: travelled to Central
Provinces and West Tibet; visited Mount Kailas and
Gu-ge, as described in his Way of the White Clouds.
Subsequently devoted himself to magnum opus: The
Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism. As his reputation
grew, travelled and lectured in USA, Japan and Europe.
Latterly based at Kasar Devi Ashram, near Almora
(North India). 1980-1: went to USA for medical treatment;
lived until death in Mill Valley. Other books including
The Psychological Attitude of Early Buddhist Philosophy,
Creative Meditation and Multidimensional Consciousness,
the Psycho-Cosmic Symbolism of the Buddhist Stupa
and The Inner Structure of the I-Ching.
Rinpoche (Karma Rangjung Kunkyab) (1905-1989)
'A modern Milaerpa', Hor region of Kham, East Tibet.
Both parents students of Jangon Kongtruil Lodro
Thaye, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and Mipham Rinpoche
(all prominent in Ri-me movement). Recognized as
tulku but not ordained, instead wandered freely;
education supervised by father. At 13 years began
formal studies at Palpung monastery. Received getsul
ordination from 11th Tai Situpa (Karma Rangjung
Kunchap). At Palpung and elsewhere studied sutra
and tantra teachings; received instruction and empowerments
from many great lamas. At age 16 undertook 3 years
retreat at Kunzang Dechen osel Ling under the direction
of root lama, Norbu Tondrup, from whom he received
complete transmission of teachings of Karma Kagyu
and Shangba Kagyu traditions. At age 25 embarked
on 12 years solitary retreat in mountains of Kham.
At request of Tai Situpa, returned to Palpung to
become Director of 3 years retreats. Recognized
by 16th Gyalwa Karmapa as incarnation of Jamgon
Kontrul Lodro Thaye. 1940s: toured Tibet; in Lhasa,
gave teachings to Regent (Reting Rinpoche). 1955:
asked to leave Tibet by Karmapa; established 2 centres
in Bhutan and ordained 300 monks. Made pilgrimage
to Buddhist holy places in India. 1965: established
Samdrup Tarjay Ling at Sonada near Darjeeling (now
his Headquarter); at once embarked on another 3
years retreat. 1971: visited France and North America;
founded several centres for practice of Chenrezi
Sadhana. 1974, 77/8: 2nd and 3rd US visits. Gave
Kalachakra Empowerments in New York City, San Francisco
and Boulder. 1976: began 3-years retreats for Westerners
in France, where he had established 2 centres. 1983:
gave Rinchen Ter Dzo empowerments at Sonada to the
'Four Great Heart-sons' of late Gyalwa Karmapa and
others. Publications including The Writings of Kalu
Rinpoche (with Kenneth McLeod), The Chariot for
Travelling the Path to Freedom and The Dharma that
Illuminates all Beings like the Light of the Sun
Sakyapa lama active in the West. Born 1931, Nangchen,
Kham, East Tibet. Recognized as incarnation of Beru
Kunrik at age 2 ½ years. Teachers: Khen Rinpoche,
Tashi Chopel, Tenpai Nyingpo and Chogay Trichen
Rinpoche. Special initiations: Hevarjra, Vajarayogini
Vajapani and Chakrasamvara. Has made a special study
of basic Sakya text known as lam-dre ('The Path
and its Fruit'). Specialization: tshogs-shay transmission
of Sakya Lam-dre teachings and Kagyu Mahamudra teachings.
Hold Khenpo degree. 1959: left Tibet. 1973: founded
Kampo Gangra Drubgyud Ling in Toronto, Canada. 1977:
inspired establishment of Sakya Rinchen Ling in
Bristrol (UK). Books including A History of the
Sixteen Karmapas of Tibet.
Tibetan layman is thought to have imported songs
and text from Bengal to Tibet, particularly those
belonging to the Mahamudra doctrine. He is mainly
venerated for having translated many Indian text
into Tibetan and as the master (guru) of
Milarepa. He was himself a disciple of Naropa and
Maitripa, and is considered to be the founder of
the Bka-rgyud-pa sect.
Saint and poet of Tibetan Buddhism. He was the second
patriarch of the Kargyupa sect, the first being
Milarepa's guru Marpa (101297), who studied
under Naropa, the Bengali master of Tantra, at Nalanda.
Milarepa's autobiography recounts how in his youth
he practiced black magic in order to take revenge
on relatives who deprived his mother of the family
inheritance. He later repented and sought Buddhist
teaching. After undergoing many tests and ordeals
under Marpa, he received initiation from him. He
spent the rest of his life meditating in mountain
caves and teaching his disciples.
Dzogchen master and scholar. Born 1938, Derge dist,
East Tibet. At 2 years, recognized as reincarnation
of Adjom Drukpa, a great Dzogchen master of early
20th Century. Later also recognized by the 16th
Gyalwa Karmapa and Situ Rinpoche as mind reincarnation
of Shabdung Ngawang Namgyal, founder of line of
Dharma Rajas (monk-kings) of Bhutan. Received initiations
from two uncles, both Dzogchen masters, and from
others. Age 5 -9, educated at Dereg Gonchen monastery,
and later went on to Dzongsar monastic college for
c 6 years. At 14 received Vajrayogini initiations
according to the Sakya school and later received
transmissions from 113 years old woman teacher.
At 16 went to China as representative of Tibetan
youth; became instructor at SW U of Minor Nationalities,
Chengdu (Szechuan, China). Back in Tibet, at 17
met Root Master, Chanchub Dorje (1826 -1978). Afterwards
went on long pilgrimage to Central Tibet, Nepal,
India and Bhutan. Returning to Tibet, forced to
flee the country due to violent political upheavals.
1958-60 lived in Gangtok, Sikkim; employed as author
and editor of Tibetan text books by government.
1960: invited to Italy by G. Tucci. 1960-64: research
associate at IsMEO, Rome. 1965: Professor in Oriental
Institute of University of Naples. 1983: hosted
1st International Convention on Tibetan Medicine
in Venice. For past 10 years has been active informally
teaching in various countries, including Italy,
France, UK, Austria, Denmark, Norway and, since
1979, USA. The Dzogchen Community, an informal association
of students practising under his guidance, has arisen.
Speaks English though prefers Italian. Married with
two children. Books including: The Crystal &
The Way of Light, The Necklace of Gzi (A Cultural
History of Tibet), Dzog.chen and Zen, The Cycle
of Day and Night, The Mirror (Advice on Presence
and Awareness), On Birth and Life (A Treatise on
Tibetan Medicine), Primordial Experience (Manjushrimitra's
Treatise on the Meaning of Bodhicitta in Dozgchen)
and Zer-Nga: The Five Principal Points (A Dzogchen
Tantric Saint, instrumental in introducing Buddhism
to Tibet. He is regarded by the Nyingma-pa Order
as their founder. The Tibetan King Trisong Detsen
(740-98) had invited the scholar Shantarakshita
to Tibet, where he disseminated Buddhism and inspired
the founding of the first Buddhist monastery at
Samye. The king then invited Padmasambhava to exorcise
the local demons and gods who resisted the teachings
(Dharma). He did so, making them protectors of the
Dharma, a story which illustrates how Buddhism incorporated
local Tibetan traditions.
Panchen Lama ranks second only to the Dalai Lama
among the Grand Lamas of the Gelugpa sect of Tibetan
Buddhism. His seat is in the Tashilhumpo monastery
at Shigatse. In 1640 the 5th Dalai Lama, having
with the aid of the Mongols acquired temporal as
well as spiritual control of the whole country,
honored his own tutor with the title of Panchen
(from Pandita, learned) Lama, and built the Tashilhumpo
monastery for him. On the death of the title holder,
the new Lama is found in the body of a small child,
as in the case of the Dalai Lama, and no new Lama
is recognized as such by the people until approved
by a Tibetan commission appointed for this purpose.
Gelugpa lama with many Western students. Born Kham
(East Tibet) into farming family. At age 18 entered
Sera Monastery (Je College); teacher was Geshe Jhampa
Khedup. Became adept at rigorous philosophical debate;
also went into frequent meditation retreat. Suffered
poverty and undernourishment until appointed tutor
to Gonsar Tulku. 1959: fled Tibet, settled first
at Buxaduar; instrumental in setting up courses
of study. 1963: awarded geshe Lharampa; shortly
afterwards moved to Dharamsala to become personal
assistant to Dalai Lama; lived in Namgyal Monastery
and began to instruct Westerners. C 1970: into retreat
near Dharamsala to contemplate meaning of sunyata.
1974: invited to Europe. 1975: returned to Switzerland
as Abbot of Tibetan Monastic Institute at Rikon.
1977: founded Tharpa Choeling Centre for Higher
Tibetan Studies at Mont Pelerin, near Lausanne;
also taught in USA and other European countries;
established centres in Germany, Italy, Austria.
' He adhered strictly to the Vinaya
and placed great emphasis on a systematic and gradual
training in the Gelugpa tradition
Batchelor). Books including The Preliminary Practises,
Advice from a Spiritual Friend (with Geshe Dhargyey),
The Life & Teaching of Geshe Rabten, Echoes
of Voidness and The Essential Nectar.
41st Patriarch of Sakya order. A married lama, considered
an incarnation of Manjushri and Padmasambhava. Born
1945, Tsedong, South Tibet. 1953: enthroned. Teachers;
Ngawang Lodro Shenpen Nyingpo, Jamyang Khyentse
Chokyi Lodro, Chogay Trichen and Khenpo Appey. Special
initiations: Hevajra, Chakrasamvara, Vajrayogini
and Vajrakilaya. Studies of special texts: Lam-dre
('The Path and Its Fruit'). Specializations: Tsog-shay
transmissions of the Sakya Lam-dre teachings and
the Khon lineage Vajrakilaya meditation and rituals.
1959: escaped to Sikkim. Began to learn English;
went to Darjeeling to continue religious studies
(Madhyamika, Prajnaparamita and Abhidharma philosophy,
logic, etc.). Spent one year in Mussorrie recovering
from TB. 1964: founded Sakya centre in Mussoorie.
Has also since founded Sakya centres at Rajpur and
Puruwala, and is head of all Sakya centres throughout
the world. 1967: gave Lam-dre teaching for 1st time
to c 400 monks and 100 lay people. Now fluent in
English, had taught in Europe, including UK.
Representative of the Madhyamika school of Mahayana
Buddhism. Shantideva was a king's son from South
India. He flourished in the 7th to 8th centuries
and was a monk at the monastic university Nalanda.He
was the author of two surviving works, the Collection
of Rules and Entering the Path of Enlightenment.
The latter is still used in Tibetan Buddhism as
a teaching text.
Incarnate lama of Ri-me tradition based in London.
Born mid-1940s, Kham, East Tibet; recognized as
tulku of famous lama and mystic, Terton Sogyal;
also of Do Khyentse, great Dzogchen master. Raised
as a son by Jamyang Khyentse Chokyi Lodro (quod
vide (see reference elsewhere)) at Dzongsar Monastic
University (East Tibet); received complete training
in sutras and tantras with transmissions and empowerments
of all four schools of Tibetan Buddhism (especially
Nyingma) from Khyentse and other great masters.
Mid-1950s: with Khyentse on long pilgrimage to Central
Tibet; visited inter alia Lhasa, Samye and Sakya.
1958: accompanied Khyentse to Sikkim; later attended
school in India; continued to receive spiritual
teachings from Dingo Khyentse Rinpoche and Dudjom
Rinpoche. Then undertook BA students in Philosophy
at St Stephen's College, Delhi University; from
there won scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge.
1973: accompanied Dalai Lama on 1st European tour;
also accompanied Dudjom Rinpoche on US tour as translator
and aide. 1974: began to teach in London. 1975:
established Dzogchen Orgyen Choling in London. 1976-7:
began to teach in Paris, later in USA. 1981: founded
Rigpa Fellowships in London. Currently directs Rigpa
centres in London, Paris and Santa Cruz (California,
USA). Teaches widely with special emphasis on Dzogchen.
Has made death and dying a specialty, working with
hospices and near death researchers.
Nyingma Lama active in USA. Born 1935, Golok, East
Tibet. Left home at 17 to travel in Kham; studied
with many famous teachers of all schools but mainly
Nyingma. 1958: left Tibet for Bhutan and India;
later to Sikkim to study with root guru Jamyang
Khyentse Chokyi Lodro. C 1962: appointed to represent
Nyingma tradition at Sanskit University, Varanasi;
founded Dharma Publishings.1968: to USA; established
Tibetan Nyingma Meditation Centre (Berkeley, Cal),
Nyingma Institute and Odiyan Retreat Centre. Married
to French - Egyptian lady. Books including Gesture
of Balance, Openness Mind, Hidden Mind of Freedom,
Skillful Means, Kum Nye Relaxation I and II, Sacred
Art of Tibet; Time, Space and Knowledge; Knowledge
of Freedom, Love of Knowledge and Copper Mountain
Mandala. Translations including Calm and Clear,
Mother of Knowledge. General Edition of Crystal
Mirror series, Ancient Tibet, and of new Nyingma
Edition of Kangyur and Tangyur.
Rinpoche, Vidyadhara Chogyam (Karma
Ngawang Chokyi Gyatso Kunga Zanpo; 1939-87)
One of the first lamas to come to the West; meditation
masters of the Kagyu and Nyingma lineages and writer.
Born Geje, East Tibet. Recognized and enthroned
as 11th Trungpa Tulku by Gyalwa Karmapa at 1 ½
years. Became Abbot of Surmang monasteries. Took
sramanera precepts at 8 years; also went into 3-
month retreat ( to meditate on Manjushri). At 9
met principal guru, Jamgon Kongtrul II of Sechen.
At 11 years, began ngondro ( preliminary practices
for Vajrayana teachings). At 14, conducted 1st full
empowerment (wangkur), which lasted 3 months. Later
left Tibet for India. Became protégé
of Freda Bedi. 1963: came to West as Spalding Fellow
at Oxford University; studied Western philosophy,
psychology, art and comparative religion. 1967:
co-founder with Chuje Akong Rinpoche of Samye-Ling
Tibetan Centre in Scotland, the 1st Tibetan Buddhist
meditation centre in West. Late 1960s: married Diana
Judith Pybus (Lady Diana Mukpo); several children
born. 1970: left for USA; established important
centres in Vermont (Tail of Tiger), Colorado (Karma
Dzong in Boulder and Rocky Mountain Dharma Centre)
and Nova Scotia (Gampo Abbey). Numerous other centres
(Dharmadhatus) in USA, Europe, etc. Headed Vajradhatu,
a world-wide organization. Died Halifax. Nova Scotia.
Books including Meditation in Action, Cutting Through
Spiritual Materialism, The Myth of Freedom, Mudra,
Shambhala - The Sacred Path of the Warrior and Journey
Without Goal. Autobiography: Born in Tibet (with
Esme Cramer Roberts).
Tibetan Buddhist reformer and founder of Dge-lugs-pa
(or Gelugpa, or 'Yellow Hat') Order. One of the
greatest names of Tibetan history, he was born on
the site of the present Kum-bum monastery and at
an early age dedicated his life to the complete
reform of Tibetan Buddhism. He founded the Ganden
monastery 26 miles from Lhasa and the the new Order
the Gelugpa, 'the virtuous ones'. To this day the
senior members wear on important occasions a yellow
headdress. Both the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama
are members of this Order.
Lama Thubten (1935-84)
Gelugpa Lama and influential teachers of Westerners.
Born near Lhasa; educated Sera Monastery (Je College).
1959: to India; settled at Buxaduar. Began teachings
Westerners with principle disciple, Zopa Rinpoche,
in Darjeeling and later Kathmandu. 1971: helped
found Kopan Monastery at Bodh Nath in Kathmandu
Valley, Nepal. In subsequent years he and his students
established over 65 centres under auspices of FPMT
(Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana
Tradition). Also instrumental in establishing Wisdom
Publications, The Universal Education Association,
a couple of monasteries for Western monks and nuns
as well as supporting leper colony in India, etc.
Toured and lectured annually in North America, Asia,
Australia and Europe. Books including Wisdom Energy
(with Lama Zopa).
Lama (new incarnation: Lama Osel)
born 1985, Granada, Spain, 5th child of Maria Torres
and Paco Hita, students of late Lama Yeshe who helped
found Osel Ling, retreat centre near Granada. First
met by Lama Zopa at age 6 months; confirmed by Dalai
Gelug lama; teachers of Westerners. Born 1946 of
Sherpa stock at Thami, Northeast Nepal, near Everest.
At age 5 recognized at tulku of Lawudo Lama, great
Nyingma practitioner, educated Solu Khumbu region
(Nepal). Taken on pilgrimage to Tibet by uncle while
still young and decided to remain. Studied first
at Dungkar monastery, later at Sera (Je College).
1959: to India; live in refugee camp at Buxaduar;
there met Lama Thubten Yeshe, his guru. Remained
several years studying under various Tibetan masters.
1965: he and Lama Yeshe met their first Westerner
student ( Zina Rachevsky). 1969: with Lama Thubten
Yeshe and Zopa Rinpoche, founded small centre at
Kopan in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; taught intensively
there in following years. 1971; helped found FPMT
(Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana
Tradition) with Lama Yeshe. 1974: made 1st visit
to West., visiting USA and Australia. Co-author
with Lama Thubten Yeshe of Wisdom Energy.