Filial Piety Sutra
Buddha Speaks about the Deep Kindness
of Parents and the Difficulty in Repaying it.
Thus I have
heard, at one time, the Buddha dwelt at Shravasti, in the Jeta
Grove, in the Garden of the Benefactor of Orphans and the Solitary,
together with a gathering of great Bhikshus, twelve hundred fifty
in all and with all of the Bodhisattvas, thirty-eight thousand
At that time,
the World Honoured One led the great assembly on a walk toward
the south. Suddenly they came upon a pile of bones beside the
road. The World Honoured One turned to face them, placed his five
limbs on the ground, and bowed respectfully.
his palms together and asked the World Honoured One, "The
Tathagata is the GreatTeacher of the Triple Realm and the compassionate
father of beings of the four kinds of births. He has the respect
and reverence of the entire assembly. What is the reason that
he now bows to a pile of dried bones?
told Ananda, "Although all of you are my foremost disciples
and have been members of the Sangha for a long time, you still
have not achieved far-reaching understanding. This pile of bones
could have belonged to my ancestors from former lives. They could
have been my parents in many past lives. That is the reason I
now bow to them." The Buddha continued speaking to Ananda,
"These bones we are looking at can be divided into two groups.
One group is composed of the bones of men, which are heavy and
white in color. The other group is composed of the bones of women,
which are light and black in color."
to the Buddha, "World Honoured One, when men are alive in
the world, they adorn their bodies with robes, belts, shoes, hats
and other fine attire, so that they clearly assume a male appearance.
When women are alive, they put on cosmetics, perfumes, powders,
and elegant fragrances to adorn their bodies, so that they clearly
assume a female appearance. Yet, once man and women die, all that
is left are their bones. How does one tell them apart? Please
teach us how you are able to distinguish them."
answered Ananda, "If when men are in the world, they enter
temples, listen to explanations of Sutras and Vinaya texts, make
obeisance to the Triple Gem, and recite the Buddha's names, then
when they die, their bones will be heavy and white in colour.
Most women in the world have little wisdom and are saturated with
emotion. They give birth to and raise children, feeling that this
is their duty. Each child relies on its mother's milk for life
and nourishment, and that milk is a transformation of the mother's
blood. Each child can drink up to one thousand two hundred gallons
of its mother's milk. Because of this drain on the mother's body
whereby the child takes milk for its nourishment, the mother becomes
worn and haggard and so her bones turn black in colour and are
light in weight."
heard these words, he felt a pain in his heart as if he had been
stabbled and wept silently. He said to the World Honoured One,
"How can one repay one's mother's kindness and virtue?"
told Ananda, "Listen well, and I will explain it for you
in detail. The fetus grows in its mother's womb for ten lunar
months. What bitterness she goes though while it dwells there!
In the first month of pregnancy, the life of the fetus is as precarious
as a dewdrop on grass: how likely that it will not last from morning
to evening but will evaporate by midday!"
the second lunar month, the embryo congeals like curds. In the
third month it is like coagulated blood. During the fourth month
of pregnancy, the fetus begins to assume a slightly human form.
During the fifth month in the womb, the child's five limbs- two
legs, two arms, and a head- start to take shape. In the sixth
lunar month of pregnancy, the child begins to develop the essences
of the six sense faculties: the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body
and mind. During the seventh month, the three hundred sixty bones
and joints are formed, and the eighty-four thousand hair pores
are also complete. In the eight lunar month of the pregnancy,
the intellect and the nine apertures are formed. By the ninth
month the fetus has learned to assimilate the different nutrients
of the foods it eats. For example, it can assimilate the essence
of peaches, pears, certain plant roots and the five kinds of grains."
the mother's body, the solid internal organs used for storing
hang downward, while the hollow internal organs used for processing,
spiral upward. These can be likened to three mountains, which
arise from the face of the earth. We can call these mountains
Mount Sumeru, Karma Mountain, and Blood Mountain. These analogous
mountains come together and form a single range in a pattern of
upward peaks and downward valleys. So too, the coagulation of
the mother's blood from her internal organs forms a single substance,
which becomes the child's food."
the tenth month of pregnancy, the body of the fetus is completed
and ready to be born. If the child is extremely filial, it will
emerge with palms joined together in respect and the birth will
be peaceful and auspicious. The mother will remain uninjured by
the birth and will not suffer pain. However, if the child is extremely
rebellious in nature, to the extent that it is capable of committing
the five rebellious acts*, then it will injure its mother's womb,
rip apart its mother's heart and liver, or get entangled in its
mother's bones. The birth will feel like the slices of a thousand
knives or like ten thousand sharp swords stabbing her heart. Those
are the agonies involved in the birth of a defiant and rebellious
more clearly, there are ten types of kindnesses bestowed by the
mother on the child:
is the kindness of providing protection and care while the child
is in the womb.
is the kindness of bearing suffering during the birth.
The third is the kindness of forgetting all the pain once the
child has been born.
is the kindness of eating the bitter herself and saving the
sweet for the child.
is the kindness of moving the child to a dry place and lying
in the wet herself.
is the kindness of suckling the child at her breast, nourishing
and bringing up the child.
is the kindness of washing away the unclean.
is the kindness of always thinking of the child when it has
is the kindness of deep care and devotion.
is the kindness of ultimate pity and sympathy.
1. THE KINDNESS
OF PROVIDING PROTECTION AND CARE WHILE THE CHILD IS IN THE WOMB
and conditions from accumulated kalpas grows heavy,
Until in this life the child ends up in its Mother's womb.
As the months pass, the five vital organs develop;
Within seven weeks the six sense organs start to grow.
The mother's body becomes as heavy as a mountain;
The stillness and movements of the fetus are like a kalpic wind
The mother's fine clothes no longer hang properly,
And so her mirror gathers dust.
2. THE KINDNESS
OF BEARING SUFFERING DURING BIRTH
lasts for ten lunar months
And culminates in difficult labour at the approach of the birth.
Meanwhile, each morning the mother is seriously ill
And during each day drowsy and sluggish.
Her fear and agitation are difficult to describe;
Grieving and tears fill her breast.
She painfully tells her family
That she is only afraid that death will overtake her.
3. THE KINDNESS
OF FORGETTING ALL THE PAIN ONCE THE CHILD HAS BEEN BORN
On the day
the compassionate mothers bears the child,
Her five organs all open wide,
Leaving her totally exhausted in body and mind.
The blood flows as from a slaughtered lamb;
Yet, upon hearing that the child is healthy,
She is overcome with redoubling joy,
But after the joy, the grief returns,
And the agony wrenches her very insides.
4. THE KINDNESS
OF EATING THE BITTER HERSELF AND SAVING THE SWEET FOR THE CHILD
of both parents is profound and deep,
Their care and devotion never cease.
Never resting, the mother saves the sweet for the child,
And without complain she swallows the bitter herself.
Her love is weighty and her emotion difficult to bear;
Her kindness is deep and so is her compassion.
Only wanting the child to get its fill,
The compassionate mother doesn't speak of her own hunger.
5. THE KINDNESS
OF MOVING THE CHILD TO A DRY PLACE AND LYING IN THE WET HERSELF
is willing to be wet
So that the child can be dry.
With her two breasts she satisfies its hunger and thirst;
Covering it with her sleeve, she protects it from the wind and
In kindness, her head rarely rests on the pillow,
And yet she does this happily,
So long as the child is comfortable,
The kind mother seeks no solace for herself.
6. THE KINDNESS
OF SUCKLING THE CHILD AT HER BREAST, NOURISHING AND BRINGING UP
mother is like the great earth.
The stern father is like the encompassing heaven:
One covers from above; the other supports from below.
The kindness of parents is such that
They know no hatred or anger toward their offspring,
And are not displeased, even if the child is born crippled.
After the mother carries the child in her womb and gives birth
The parents care for and protect it together until the end of
7. THE KINDNESS
OF WASHING AWAY THE UNCLEAN
she had a pretty face and a beautiful body,
Her spirit was strong and vibrant.
Her eyebrows were like fresh green willows,
And her complexion would have put a red rose to shame.
But her kindness is so deep she will forgo a beautiful face.
Although washing away the filth injures her constitution,
The kind mother acts solely for the sake of her sons and daughters,
And willingly allows her beauty to fade.
8. THE KINDNESS
OF ALWAYS THINKING OF THE CHILD WHEN IT HAS TRAVELLED FAR
of loved ones is difficult to endure.
But separation is also painful.
When the child travels afar,
The mother worries in her village.
From morning until night, her heart is with her child,
And a thousand tears fall from her eyes.
Like the monkey weeping silently in love for her child,
Bit by bit her heart is broken.
9. THE KINDNESS
OF DEEP CARE AND DEVOTION
is parental kindness and emotional concern!
Their kindness is deep and difficult to repay.
Willingly they undergo suffering on their child's behalf.
If the child toils, the parents are uncomfortable.
If they hear that he has traveled far,
They worry that at night he will have to lie in the cold.
Even a moment's pain suffered by their sons and daughters.
Will cause the parents sustained distress.
10. THE KINDNESS
OF ULTIMATE COMPASSION AND SYMPATHY
of parents is profound and important.
Their tender concern never cease.
From the moment they awake each day, their thoughts are with their
Whether the children are near or far away, the parents think of
Even if a mother lives for a hundred years,
She will constantly worry about her eighty year old child.
Do you wish to know when such kindness and love ends?
It doesn't even begin to dissipate until her life is over!
The Buddha told Ananda, "When I contemplate living beings,
I see that although they are born as human beings, nonetheless,
they are ignorant and dull in their thoughts and actions. They
don't consider their parents' great kindness and virtue. They
are disrespectful and turn their backs on kindness and what is
right. They lack humaneness and are neither filial nor compliant."
ten months while the mother is with child, she feels discomfort
each time she rises, as if she were lifting a heavy burden. Like
a chronic invalid, she is unable to keep her food and drink down.
When the ten months have passed and the time comes for the birth,
she undergoes all kinds of pain and suffering so that the child
can be born. She is afraid of her own mortality, like a pig or
lamb waiting to be slaughtered. Then the blood flows all over
the ground. These are the sufferings she undergo."
the child is born, she saves what is sweet for him and swallows
what is bitter herself. She carries the child and nourishes it,
washing away its filth. There is no toil or difficulty that she
does not willingly undertake for the sake of her child. She endures
both cold and heat and never even mentions what she has gone through.
She gives the dry place to her child and sleeps in the damp herself.
For three years she nourishes the baby with milk, which is transformed
from the blood of her own body."
continually instruct and guide their children in the ways of propriety
and morality as the youngsters mature into adults. They arrange
marriages for them and provide them with property and wealth or
devise ways to get it for them. They take this responsibility
and trouble upon themselves with tremendous zeal and toil, never
speaking about their care and kindness."
a son or daughter become ill, parents are worried and afraid to
the point that they may even grow ill themselves. They remain
by the child's side providing constant care, and only when the
child gets well are the parents happy once again. In this way,
they care for and raise their children with the sustained hope
that their offspring will soon grow to be mature adults."
sad that all too often the children are unfilial in return! In
speaking with relatives whom they should honour, the children
display no compliance. When they ought to be polite, they have
no manners. They glare at those whom they should venerate, and
insult their uncles and aunts. They scold their siblings and destroy
any family feeling that might have existed among them. Children
like that have no respect of sense of propriety."
may be well taught, but if they are unfilial, they will not heed
the instructions or obey the rules. Rarely will they rely upon
the guidance of their parents. They are contrary and rebellious
when interacting with their brothers. They come and go from home
without ever reporting to their parents. Their speech and actions
are very arrogant and they act on impulse without consulting others.
Such children ignore the admonishments and punishments set down
by their parents and pay no regard to their uncles' warnings.
Yet, at the same time, they are immature and always need to be
looked after and protected by their elders."
such children grow up, they become more and more obstinate and
uncontrollable. They are entirely ungrateful and totally contrary.
They are defiant and hateful, rejecting both family and friends.
They befriend evil people and under influence, soon adopt the
same kinds of bad habits. They come to take what is false to be
children may be enticed by others to leave their families and
run away to live in others towns, thus denouncing their parents
and rejecting their native town. They may become businessmen or
civil servants who languish in comfort and luxury. They may marry
in haste, and that new bond provides yet another obstruction which
prevents them from returning home for long periods of time."
in going to live in other towns, these children may be incautious
and find themselves plotted against or accused of doing evil.
They may be unfairly locked up in prison or they may meet with
illness and become enmeshed in disasters and hardships, subject
to the terrible pain of poverty, starvation, and emaciation. Yet
no one there will care for them. Being scorned and disliked by
others, they will be abandoned on the street. In such circumstances,
their lives may come to an end. No one bothers to try to save
them. Their bodies swell up, rot, decay, and are exposed to the
sun and blown away by the wind. The bones entirely disintegrate
and scatter as these children come to their final rest in the
dirt of some other town. These children will never again have
a happy reunion with their relatives and kin. Nor will they ever
know how their ageing parents mourn for and worry about them.
The parents may grow blind from weeping or become sick from extreme
grief and despair. Constantly dwelling on the memory of their
children, they may pass away, but even when they become ghosts,
their souls still cling to this attachment and are unable to get
of these unfilial children may not aspire to learning, but instead
become interested in strange and bizarre doctrines. Such children
may be villainous, coarse and stubborn, delighting in practices
that are utterly devoid of benefit. They may become involved in
fights and thefts, setting themselves at odds with the town by
drinking and gambling. As if debauchery were not enough, they
drag their brothers into it as well, to the further distress of
such children do live at home, they leave early in the morning
and do not return until late at night. Never do they ask about
the welfare of their parents or make sure that they don't suffer
from heat or cold. They do not inquire after their parents' well
being in the morning or the evening, nor even on the first and
fifteenth of the lunar month. In fact, it never occurs to these
unfilial children to ever ask whether their parents have slept
comfortably or rested peacefully. Such children are simply not
concerned in the least about their parents' well being. When the
parents of such children grow old and their appearance becomes
more and more withered and emaciated, they are made to feel ashamed
to be seen in public and are subjected to abuse and oppression."
unfilial children may end up with a father who is a widower or
a mother who is a widow. The solitary parents are left alone in
empty houses, feeling like guests in their own homes. They may
endure cold and hunger, but no one takes heed of their plight.
They may weep incessantly from morning to night, sighing and lamenting.
It is only right that children should provide for ageing parents
with food and drink of delicious flavours, but irresponsible children
are sure to overlook their duties. If they ever do attempt to
help their parents in any way, they feel embarrassed and are afraid
people will laugh at them. Yet, such offspring may lavish wealth
and food on their own wives and children, disregarding the toil
and weariness involved in doing so. Other unfilial offspring may
be so intimidated by their wives that they go along with all of
their wishes. But when appealed to by their parents and elders,
they ignore them and are totally unfazed by their pleas."
may be the case that daughters were quite filial to their parents
before their own marriages, but they may become progressively
rebellious after they marry. This situation may be so extreme
that if their parents show even the slightest signs of displeasure,
the daughters become hateful and vengeful toward them. Yet they
bear their husband's scolding and beatings with sweet tempers,
even though their spouses are outsiders with other surnames and
family ties. The emotional bonds between such couples are deeply
entangled, and yet these daughters hold their parents at a distance.
They may follow their husbands and move to other towns, leaving
their parents behind entirely. They do not long for them and simply
cut off all communication with them. When the parents continue
to hear no word from their daughters, they feel incessant anxiety.
They become so fraught with sorrow that it is as if they were
suspended upside down. Their every thought is of seeing their
children, just as one who is thirsty longs for something to drink.
Their kind thoughts for their offspring never cease."
virtue of one's parents' kindness is boundless and limitless.
If one has made the mistake of being unfilial, how difficult it
is to repay that kindness!"
At that time,
upon hearing the Buddha speak about the depth of one's parents
kindness, everyone in the Great Assembly threw themselves on the
ground and began beating their breasts and striking themselves
until their hair pores flowed with blood. Some fell unconscious
to the ground, while others stamped their feet in grief. It was
a long time before they could control themselves. With loud voices
they lamented, "Such suffering! What suffering! How painful!
How painful! We are all offenders. We are criminals who have never
awakened, like those who travel in a dark night. We have just
now understood our offenses and our very insides are torn to bits.
We only hope that the World Honoured One will pity and save us.
Please tell us how we can repay the deep kindness of our parents!"
At the time
the Tathagata used eight kinds of profoundly deep and pure sounds
to speak to the assembly. "All of you should know this. I
will now explain for you the various aspects of this matter."
there were a person who carries his father on his left shoulder
and his mother on his right shoulder until his bones were ground
to powder by their weight as they bore through to the marrow,
and if that person were to circumambulate Mount Sumeru for a hundred
thousand kalpas until the blood that flowed out covered his ankles,
that person would still not have repaid the deep kindness of his
there were a person who, during the period of a kalpa fraught
with famine and starvation, sliced the flesh off his own body
to feed his parents and did this as many times as there are dust
motes as he passed through hundreds of thousand of kalpas, that
person still would not have repaid the deep kindness of his parents."
there were a person who, for the sake of this parents, took a
sharp knife and cut his eyes and made an offering of them to the
Tathagatas, and continued to do that for hundreds of thousands
of kalpas, that person still would not have repaid the deep kindness
of his parents."
there a person who, for the sake of this father and mother, used
a sharp knife to cut out his heart and liver so that the blood
flowed and covered the ground and if he continued in this way
to do this for hundreds of thousands of kalpas, never once complaining
about the pain, that person still would not have repaid the deep
kindness of his parents."
there were a person who, for the sake of his parents, took a hundred
thousand swords and stabbed his body with them all at once such
that they entered one side and came out the other, and if he continued
in this way to do this for hundreds of thousands of kalpas, that
person still would not have repaid the deep kindness of his parents."
there were a person who, for the sake of his parents, beat his
bones down to the marrow and continued in this way to do this
way to do this for hundreds of thousands of kalpas, that person
still would not have repaid the deep kindness of his parents."
there were a person who, for the sake of this parents, swallowed
molten iron pellets and continued in this way to do this for hundreds
of thousands of kalpas, that person still would not have repaid
the deep kindness of his parents."
At that time,
upon hearing the Buddha speak about the kindness and virtue of
parents, everyone in the Great Assembly wept silent tears and
felt searing pain in their hearts. They reflected deeply, simultaneously
brought forth shame and said to the Buddha, "World Honoured
One, how can we repay the deep kindness of our parents?"
replied, "Disciples of the Buddha, if you wish to repay your
parents' kindness, write out this Sutra on their behalf. Recite
this Sutra on their behalf. Repent of transgressions and offenses
on their behalf. For the sake of your parents, make offerings
to the Triple Gem. For the sake of your parents, hold the precept
of pure eating. For the sake of your parents, practise giving
and cultivate blessings. If you are able to do these things, you
are being a filial child. If you do not do these things, you are
a person destined for the hells."
told Ananda, "If a person is not filial, when his life ends
and his body decays, he will fall into, the great Avici Hell.
This great hell is eighty thousand yojanas in circumference and
is surrounded on all four sides by iron walls. Above, it is covered
over by nets, and the ground is also made of iron. A mass of fire
burns fiercely, while thunder roars and bright bolts of lightning
set things afire. Molten brass and iron fluids are poured over
the offenders' bodies. Brass dogs and iron snakes constantly spew
out fire and smoke which burns the offenders and broils their
flesh and fat to a pulp."
such suffering! Difficult to take, difficult to bear! There are
poles, hooks, spears, and lances, iron halberds and iron chains,
iron hammers and iron awls. Wheels of iron knives rain down from
the air. The offender is chopped, hacked, or stabbed, and undergoes
these cruel punishments for kalpas without respite. Then they
enter the remaining hells, where their heads are capped with fiery
basins, while iron wheels roll over their bodies, passing both
horizontally and vertically until their guts are ripped open and
their bones and flesh are squashed to a pulp. Within a single
day, they experience myriad births and myriad deaths. Such sufferings
are a result of committing the five rebellious acts and of being
unfilial when one was alive."
At that time,
upon hearing the Buddha speak about the virtue of parents' kindness,
everyone in the Great Assembly wept sorrowfully and addressed
the Tathagata, "On this day, how can we repay the deep kindness
of our parents?"
said, "Disciples of the Buddha, if you wish to repay their
kindness, then for the sake of your parents, print this Sutra.
This is truly repaying their kindness. If one can print one copy,
then one will get to see one Buddha. If one can print ten copies,
then one will get to see ten Buddhas. If one can print one hundred
copies, then one will get to see one hundred Buddhas. If one can
print one thousand copies, then one will get to see one thousand
Buddhas. If one can print ten thousand copies, then one will get
to see ten thousand Buddhas. This is the power derived when good
people print Sutras. All Buddhas will forever protect such people
with their kindness and their parents can be reborn in the heavens
to enjoy all kinds of happiness, leaving behind the sufferings
of the hells."
At that time,
Ananda and the rest of the Great Assembly the asuras, garudas,
kinnaras, mahoragas, people, non-people, and others, as well as
the gods, dragons, yakshas, gandarvas, wheel-turning sage kings,
and all the lesser kings, felt all the hairs on their bodies stand
on their ends when they heard what the Buddha had said. They wept
grievously and were unable to stop themselves. Each one of them
made a vow saying, "All of us, from now until the exhaustion
of the bounds of the future, would rather that our bodies be pulverised
into small particles of dust for a hundred thousand kalpas, than
to ever go against the Tathagata's sagely teachings. We would
rather that our tongues be plucked out, so that they would extend
for a full yojana, and that for a hundred thousand kalpas an iron
plough run over them; we would rather have a hundred thousand
bladed wheel roll freely over bodies, than to ever go against
the Tathagata's sagely teachings. We would rather that our bodies
be ensnared in an iron net for a hundred thousand kalpas, than
to ever go against the Tathagata's sagely teachings. We would
rather that for a hundred thousand kalpas our bodies be chopped,
hacked, mutilated, and chiseled into ten million pieces, so that
our skin, flesh, joints, and bones would be completely disintegrated,
than to ever go against the Tathagata's sagely teachings."
At that time,
Ananda, with a dignity and a sense of peace, rose from his seat
and asked the Buddha, "World Honoured One, what name shall
this Sutra have when we accord with it and uphold it?"
told Ananda, "This Sutra is called THE SUTRA ABOUT THE DEEP
KINDNESS OF PARENTS AND THE DIFFICULTY OF REPAYING IT. Use this
name when you accord with it and uphold it."
At that time,
the Great Assembly, the gods, humans, asuras, and the others,
hearing what the Buddha has said, were completely delighted. They
believed the Buddha's teaching, received it, and offered up their
conduct in accord with it. Then they bowed respectfully to the
Buddha, before withdrawing.