Jawaharlal Nehru, The Discovery of India (Calcutta:
Signet Press, 1946) p.143.
3. In Sanskrit, Siddhârtha Gautama.
4. The warrior class.
5. Sir Edwin Arnold, The Light of Asia.
8. For a detailed account see M. No. 36, trans. by I.B.
Horner in Middle Length Sayings, Vol. I (PTS.). See also
R. Abeysekara, "The Masterís Quest for Light" (Kandy,
BPS) BL Ó.
9. Mahâ Saccaka Sutta, M. No. 36.
10. Elsewhere we see the defilement of false view (ditthâsava)
added to these as the fourth taint.
11. M. No. 36; I,249.
12. Dhp.153 - 154. Trans. by Ñanamoli Thera.
13. A bodhisatta (Skt. bodhisattva) is one who adheres
to or is bent on (satta) the ideal of enlightenment,
or knowledge of the Four Noble Truths (bodhi). In this
sense, the term may be applied to anyone who is bent on supreme
enlightenment (sammâ-sambodhi). A Bodhisatta
fully cultivates ten perfections or pârami, which
are essential qualities of an extremely high standard initiated
by compassion, and ever tinged with understanding, free from
craving, pride, and false views (tanhâ ,ditthi
, and mâna) that qualify an aspirant for Buddhahood.
They are: dâna, sila, nekkhamma, pañña,
viriya, khanti, sacca, adhitthâna, mettâ, and
upekkhâ,generosity, morality, renunciation, wisdom,
effort, forbearance, truthfulness, determination, loving-kindness,
14. 2500 Years of Buddhism, Foreword, p.ix,
Government of India, 1971.
15. Vin.I,10; V,420.
17. Ud.1. See too the authorís Dependent Origination
18. At this time there was as yet no Order (sangha).
20. M. No. 26; I,167- 68.
21. For a comprehensive explanation of these truths, see
the authorís The Buddhaís Ancient Path; Bhikkhu Ñanamoli,
Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha (Wheel No. 17);
Francis Story, The Four Noble Truths (Wheel No. 34/35);
Nyanatiloka Thera, The Word of the Buddha. All published
22. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, S.V,420.
23. The Bosat (Vol. 5, No.I, 1942), Vajirarama, Colombo,
25. M. No. 22; I,140.
26. S.V,588; M. No. 92; Vin.I,45; Thag. 828.
27. In 273 B.C. Emperor Asoka came on pilgrimage to this
holy spot and caused a series of monuments and a commemorative
pillar with the lion capital to be erected. This capital with
its four magnificent lions upholding the dharmacakra,
"the Wheel of Dharma," now stands in the museum of
Sarnath, Benares, and is today the official crest of India.
The dharmacakra festival is still held in Sri Lanka.
Nehru writes: "At Sarnath near Benares, I would almost
see the Buddha preaching his first sermon, and some of his recorded
words would come like a distant echo to me through two thousand
five hundred years. Asokaís pillars of stone with their inscriptions
would speak to me in their magnificent language and tell me
of a man who, though an emperor, was greater than any king or
emperor." (The Discovery of India, p.44.)
The "rains" is the three months of seclusion during
the rainy season, i.e. from July to October in India.
30. It is interesting to note that this greatest of Indian
rishis (seers) was born under a tree in a park, attained enlightenment
under the Bodhi Tree, set in motion the Wheel of Dhamma at the
Deer Park under trees, and finally passed away under the twin
sâla trees. He spent most of his time in the open in forests
and in the villages of India. The south branch of the Bodhi
Tree was brought to Sri Lanka by the arhat nun Sanghamittâ,
daughter of Asoka the Great of India, in the third century B.C.
The oldest recorded tree in the world, it still flourishes at
31. The whole of this discourse is at A.IV,354, Ud.34 -
37, and in brief at Dhammapada Commentary, I,287. In
the elderís verse (66) in Theragâthâ, it
is said that Venerable Meghiya was of a Sâkyan râjâís
family. The Dhammapada verses (33, 34) are as follows:
unsteady fickle mind
Hard to guard and hard to control,
The wise man straightens
Even as a fletcher an arrow.
a fish jerked out of its watery abode
And cast on land, this mind quakes;
(Therefore) the realm of Mâra
Should be abandoned.
Ariya-pariyesana Sutta, M.No. 26; I,264.
33. The word is applied only to those who have fully destroyed
the taints. In this sense the Buddha was the first arahat in
the world, as he himself revealed to Upaka.
35. Mahâ Parinibbâa Sutta, D. No. 16; II,100.
36. M. No. 38; I,264.
37. Dhp. 276.
39. Vatthûpama Sutta, M. No. 7. See Nyanaponika Thera,
The Simile of the Cloth (Wheel No. 61/62).
40. P.D. Premasiri, "The Buddhist Concept of A Just
Social and Political Order," Young Buddhist, Singapore.
41. Sn. 455, 456; Chalmerís translation (Harvard Oriental
42. See G.P. Malalasekera and K.N. Jayatilleke, Buddhism
and the Race Question (Wheel 200/201).
43. Psalms of the Early Buddhists - The Sisters,
trans. by C.A.F. Rhys Davids (PTS Translation Series).
44. Jâtaka No. 485.
45. Vin.I,82+83. See Piyadassi Thera and J.F. Dickson, Ordination
in Theravâda Buddhism Wheel No.56.
46. M. No. 62. For a full translation see Advice to Râhula
(Wheel No. 33).
47. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, Psalms of the Early Buddhists
- The Sisters, p.120.
49. "To the north-east of the monastery of Jetavana,"
wrote General Alexander Cunningham in his Archaeological
Report, 1862+3, "there was a stûpa built
on the spot where the Buddha had washed the hands and feet of
a sick monk. The remains of the stûpa still exist
in a mass of solid brick work at a distance of 550 feet from
the Jetavana Monastery." In General Cunninghamís map of
Sâvatthi (modern Sahet-Mahet), the site of this stûpa
is marked H. in the plan. Archaeological Survey of India
(Simla 1871), p.341.
50. Metta Sutta, Sutta Nipâta, 149, 149; Chalmerís
51. Edwin Arnold, The Light of Asia.
52. These are the attha loka-dhamma, the eight vicissitudes
55. Dhammapada, 310.
56. Comy. on the Dhammapada, Vol. I, p.147.
57. D. No. 16, translated as Last Days of the Buddha
58. These four stages are: sotâpatti (stream-entry);
sakadâgâmi, (once-return); anâgâmi
(non-return); and arahatta (the final stage of sainthood).
Arahatship is the stage at which fetters are severed and taints
59. The MahâParinibbâna Sutta (D. No. 16) records
in moving detail all the events that occurred during the last
months and days of the Masterís life.
60. The passages in quotations are taken with slight alterations
from the "Book of the Great Decease" in Dialogues
of the Buddha, Digha Nikâya, Part II.