Jawaharlal Nehru, The Discovery of India (Calcutta: Signet
Press, 1946) p.143.
3. In Sanskrit, Siddhârtha Gautama.
4. The warrior class.
5. Sir Edwin Arnold, The Light of Asia.
8. For a detailed account see M. No. 36, trans. by I.B. Horner in
Middle Length Sayings, Vol. I (PTS.). See also R. Abeysekara,
"The Masterís Quest for Light" (Kandy, BPS) BL Ó.
9. Mahâ Saccaka Sutta, M. No. 36.
10. Elsewhere we see the defilement of false view (ditthâsava)
added to these as the fourth taint.
11. M. No. 36; I,249.
12. Dhp.153 - 154. Trans. by Ñanamoli Thera.
13. A bodhisatta (Skt. bodhisattva) is one who adheres to
or is bent on (satta) the ideal of enlightenment, or knowledge
of the Four Noble Truths (bodhi). In this sense, the term may
be applied to anyone who is bent on supreme enlightenment (sammâ-sambodhi).
A Bodhisatta fully cultivates ten perfections or pârami,
which are essential qualities of an extremely high standard initiated
by compassion, and ever tinged with understanding, free from craving,
pride, and false views (tanhâ ,ditthi , and mâna)
that qualify an aspirant for Buddhahood. They are: dâna, sila,
nekkhamma, pañña, viriya, khanti, sacca, adhitthâna,
mettâ, and upekkhâ,generosity, morality, renunciation,
wisdom, effort, forbearance, truthfulness, determination, loving-kindness,
14. 2500 Years of Buddhism, Foreword, p.ix, Government
of India, 1971.
15. Vin.I,10; V,420.
17. Ud.1. See too the authorís Dependent Origination
18. At this time there was as yet no Order (sangha).
20. M. No. 26; I,167- 68.
21. For a comprehensive explanation of these truths, see the authorís
The Buddhaís Ancient Path; Bhikkhu Ñanamoli, Three
Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha (Wheel No. 17); Francis Story,
The Four Noble Truths (Wheel No. 34/35); Nyanatiloka Thera, The
Word of the Buddha. All published by BPS.
22. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, S.V,420.
23. The Bosat (Vol. 5, No.I, 1942), Vajirarama, Colombo,
25. M. No. 22; I,140.
26. S.V,588; M. No. 92; Vin.I,45; Thag. 828.
27. In 273 B.C. Emperor Asoka came on pilgrimage to this holy spot
and caused a series of monuments and a commemorative pillar with the
lion capital to be erected. This capital with its four magnificent lions
upholding the dharmacakra, "the Wheel of Dharma," now
stands in the museum of Sarnath, Benares, and is today the official
crest of India. The dharmacakra festival is still held in Sri
Nehru writes: "At Sarnath near Benares, I would almost see the
Buddha preaching his first sermon, and some of his recorded words would
come like a distant echo to me through two thousand five hundred years.
Asokaís pillars of stone with their inscriptions would speak to me in
their magnificent language and tell me of a man who, though an emperor,
was greater than any king or emperor." (The Discovery of India,
The "rains" is the three months of seclusion during the
rainy season, i.e. from July to October in India.
30. It is interesting to note that this greatest of Indian rishis
(seers) was born under a tree in a park, attained enlightenment under
the Bodhi Tree, set in motion the Wheel of Dhamma at the Deer Park under
trees, and finally passed away under the twin sâla trees. He spent
most of his time in the open in forests and in the villages of India.
The south branch of the Bodhi Tree was brought to Sri Lanka by the arhat
nun Sanghamittâ, daughter of Asoka the Great of India, in the
third century B.C. The oldest recorded tree in the world, it still flourishes
31. The whole of this discourse is at A.IV,354, Ud.34 - 37, and
in brief at Dhammapada Commentary, I,287. In the elderís verse
(66) in Theragâthâ, it is said that Venerable Meghiya
was of a Sâkyan râjâís family. The Dhammapada verses
(33, 34) are as follows:
unsteady fickle mind
Hard to guard and hard to control,
The wise man straightens
Even as a fletcher an arrow.
a fish jerked out of its watery abode
And cast on land, this mind quakes;
(Therefore) the realm of Mâra
Should be abandoned.
Ariya-pariyesana Sutta, M.No. 26; I,264.
33. The word is applied only to those who have fully destroyed the
taints. In this sense the Buddha was the first arahat in the world,
as he himself revealed to Upaka.
35. Mahâ Parinibbâa Sutta, D. No. 16; II,100.
36. M. No. 38; I,264.
37. Dhp. 276.
39. Vatthûpama Sutta, M. No. 7. See Nyanaponika Thera, The
Simile of the Cloth (Wheel No. 61/62).
40. P.D. Premasiri, "The Buddhist Concept of A Just Social
and Political Order," Young Buddhist, Singapore.
41. Sn. 455, 456; Chalmerís translation (Harvard Oriental Series).
42. See G.P. Malalasekera and K.N. Jayatilleke, Buddhism and
the Race Question (Wheel 200/201).
43. Psalms of the Early Buddhists - The Sisters, trans.
by C.A.F. Rhys Davids (PTS Translation Series).
44. Jâtaka No. 485.
45. Vin.I,82+83. See Piyadassi Thera and J.F. Dickson, Ordination
in Theravâda Buddhism Wheel No.56.
46. M. No. 62. For a full translation see Advice to Râhula
(Wheel No. 33).
47. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, Psalms of the Early Buddhists - The
49. "To the north-east of the monastery of Jetavana,"
wrote General Alexander Cunningham in his Archaeological Report,
1862+3, "there was a stûpa built on the spot where
the Buddha had washed the hands and feet of a sick monk. The remains
of the stûpa still exist in a mass of solid brick work
at a distance of 550 feet from the Jetavana Monastery." In General
Cunninghamís map of Sâvatthi (modern Sahet-Mahet), the site of
this stûpa is marked H. in the plan. Archaeological Survey
of India (Simla 1871), p.341.
50. Metta Sutta, Sutta Nipâta, 149, 149; Chalmerís
51. Edwin Arnold, The Light of Asia.
52. These are the attha loka-dhamma, the eight vicissitudes
55. Dhammapada, 310.
56. Comy. on the Dhammapada, Vol. I, p.147.
57. D. No. 16, translated as Last Days of the Buddha (BPS).
58. These four stages are: sotâpatti (stream-entry);
sakadâgâmi, (once-return); anâgâmi
(non-return); and arahatta (the final stage of sainthood). Arahatship
is the stage at which fetters are severed and taints rooted out.
59. The MahâParinibbâna Sutta (D. No. 16) records in
moving detail all the events that occurred during the last months and
days of the Masterís life.
60. The passages in quotations are taken with slight alterations
from the "Book of the Great Decease" in Dialogues of the
Buddha, Digha Nikâya, Part II.