| (87) The
manner of developing Mudita
'Mudita" means rejoicing and getting pleased. It is rejoicing with others in their happiness and prosperity. Some people do not wish to see others prosper, happy and successful in their life's career. This reflects the nature of Envy and Jealousy. In Pali language, it is called "issa". The said "mudita" is diametrically opposite to "issa", the Envy. A person who is overwhelmed with the feeling of envy will not be desirous of seeing others becoming prosperous and happy. Nor is he inclined to see others being endowed with a large number of attendants (retinue), handsome looks, and good education; nor does he wish to see others reaching a higher status in life and getting promotion in official rank and position. On the other hand, a person with mudita gets pleased and rejoiced in finding and seeing others successful in their business or official career. He can bring into his mind the feeling of joy and pleasure, saying: "May ... ... be prosperous." This bents of mind or rather goodwill is "mudita". It is indeed a Dhamma - the nature of noble-mindedness with extreme moral purification.
Feeling of mudita should be spread out. or radiated, first and foremost, to a very intimate friend who is in the habit of speaking with a smile on his face. Or, when a beloved one who has become wealthy and prosperous, smartly dressed with happiness is seen or heard (modati vatayam satto aho sutthu), mudita - feeling of rejoicing - should be invoked uttering: "0h! How happy he is. 0, very fine indeed (or rather, how good it is)."
This is the transliteration of the statement as contained in the Visuddhimagga. Also in the Abhidhamma Vibanga Pali, it has been preached as stated below:
Bhikkhu - A Bhikkhu, muditasahagatena cetasa, - with the mind that occurs along with muditta, kathanca - how, ekam disam pharitva - by radiating towards one region, Viharati - will it reside or remain staying? Seyathapi nama - Citing as an example, piyam manapam - deserving of love and adoration, ekam puggalam - an individual, disva having seen, mudito - becoming pleased and happy, assa it so happens. Evameva - Similarly, sabbe satta - to all living beings, muditaya pharati - it is spread out with mudita.
In the statement given in the Visuddhimagga as earlier stated in regard to developing mudita, it is shown how happiness had occurred as: "(aho sadhu aho sutthu) - 0, how good or fine it is!" It has not been stated in the manner usually uttered by rote at the present day, by Sanghas, Bhikkhus and laymen as - (Yathaladdha sampattito ma vigacchantu), i.e., "may not be deprived of or diminished in all riches and wealth that have already come into possession". However, in explaining the decision made at random, it has been stated as: kammassaka satta, te kassa ruciya... pattasampattito va na parihayissantiti evam pavattakammassakatadassanapadatthana. In this statement, what has been explained as "Living beings having had, their own individual kamma which produces the advantageous results that ripen, since they are the masters of their own destiny and are reaping the fruits, the seeds of which they have sown in the past, how can they be deprived of and diminished in their wealth by the will or influence of others?" is in conformity with the statement, "ma vigacchantu - may not be deprived of and diminished". Hence, in developing mudita, what is usually uttered by rote by the majority of the people, will be expounded.
It a person endowed with wealth and happiness is seen or heard, mudita should be developed by bringing him into one's mind as. "May not this person's wealth diminish and may he not suffer loss. May he be able to retain his wealth and luxurious living status quo in full accomplishment, and be able to enjoy happiness as before." Towards a large number of people, mudita is to be developed likewise as: "May their wealth and prosperity which have been acquired, be not diminished or lost; and may they be able to retain their wealth in full with luxury and be as happy as before." In this regard, the statement - "to have the full accomplishment of his wealth and luxurious life" may be construed as not being fabulously rich but as being fairly well off. Mudita can be developed visualising with a deep feeling of joy towards a person who is fairly wealthy. Such being the case, there is hardly anything to be said in particular in the matter of radiating mudita towards a person of great affluence for whom mudita can be developed with much more heartfelt rejoicing. Let us therefore recite the motto which is relevant to the said two types of persons:
Nevertheless, those living beings who are said to be in misery are likely to enjoy happiness in their own way according to circumstances under which they live. Even those beings who were continuously suffering pain and misery in the burning fires of hell were said to get relief at the time when the Supreme Buddha and noble Arahats had made a visit to the realm of Apaya hell and preached the Dhamma. Therefore, mudita can be very well developed with a benevolent feeling towards all beings. The manner of developing mudita is the same as in the case of developing karuna. Let us develop by recitation. Please follow me:
This method of developing mudita is in conformity with the instructions contained in the Pali Text as: "Sabbe satta yathaladdhasampattito ma vigacchantu. " Next, we shall proceed to develop by reciting in accordance with what has been stated as "Sabbe pana,", etc.
These five phrases which have just been recited constitute the five kinds of anodhisa-mudita which indicate the manner of developing mudita with goodwill and joy towards all living beings without any distinction and limit. We shall now continue to recite and develop the seven kinds of odhisa-mudita.
The above is the manner of developing the seven kinds of odhisa-mudita. If these seven were added to the five kinds of anodhisa, as stated earlier, it will come to twelve (12). These are the twelve "disa-anodhisa-mudita" without distinguishing regionwise and without limitation. When developing by distinguishing the regions, there will be twelve (12) for each and every region. As there are ten regions, it will come to a total of 120. Let us also recite and develop these one hundred and twenty in brief. Please follow the recitation:
This is the manner of developing twelve kinds of mudita to those beings in the Eastern region. In regard to those in the Western region and so on, it should be developed in the same manner.
What have just been recited are 120 kinds of disaodhisa-mudita in a nutshell. If these are added to the 12 kinds of disa-anodhisa as mentioned earlier, it will come to a total of 132 kinds of mudita. Now the manner of developing mudita is quite complete. If possible, and if time and circumstances permit, these 132 kinds of mudita may be developed. In the event of not being able to develop in the manner stated, if mudita, with a feeling of rejoicing, can be developed towards affluent persons every time they are found, seen or heard, mentally or verbally uttered as:
The majority of the people are likely to be jealous of others being better than them. At present, people are generally apt to become envious and are inclined to conspire with ill-feeling to cause misery to others and to bring about their financial ruin on flimsy grounds. These are envy - "Issa" which bring demerits. Those who are jealous or envious will generally have no good friends who would render them assistance. In future existences, they may probably be in misery for lack of attendants. Relating to matters mentioned in the foregoing, it has been cited in Uparipannasa Culakammavibhanga Sutta (246).
Manava - O, Subha, the young lad! (a relative account of the young man Subha will be narrated later). Ida - In this Universe, ekacco itthi va puriso va - whether a female or a male, relating to some persons, issamanako - feeling of envy, hoti - has arisen in them. Paralabhasakkaramananavandanapujasu - Also against other persons for having acquired wealth and prosperity, for performing acts of charity with due regards, for paying reverence, for worshipping, and for being bent upon giving deep respect with veneration, issati - some have. become envious, upadussati - and have thus committed fault or sin for their ill-will or churlishness. Issam bandhati - They are firmly attached to 'envy' as if fastened with a rope. Such an envious person, tena kammena evam samattena samadinnena - because of evil kamma, for having built up and succeeded in establishing that envious feeling as stated, kayassa bheda param marana - after the disintegration of the existing material body of khandha on death, Apayam duggatim - to Apaya, the abode of suffering, vinipatam nirayam - and to hell where one is liable to reach after the destruction of the happy condition of human life existence (i.e., as a human being), upapajjati - will descend, or rather will be reborn in such miserable existence, Sace manussattam agacchati - or, by virtue of other kusala-kamma, i.e., moral or meritorious actions, if he, happens to reach a human existence, yattha yattha paccajayati - in whatever existence he may become (its meaning herein rendered in plain Burmese is: to have a smooth flow), appesakkho hoti - he is likely to be deprived of the company of attendants and helpers. Manava - 0, young man - Subha esapatipada - this habitual conduct of appesakkha samvattanika - is conducive to, or is likely to lead to a state of total deprivation of the company of attendants and helpers.
Briefly stated, a person who is envious of others' success in acquiring wealth and prosperity, and enhancement of reputation or prestige, is likely to go down to the Four Apayas and reach hell for this immoral action of Envy. After his release from the Apaya - Hell, if he is reborn as a human being by virtue of the strength of his kusalas (merits), he will be lacking in companions and attendants. It is clearly illustrated and expounded in Atthakatha as resembling "One who is armless, or rather, one who is without his hands after being cut - off, when becoming thirsty, will have no assistance or helper even to offer him water to drink for the purpose of quenching his thirst."
On the other hand, a person who is rejoicing with others in their well-being and happiness, will be elevated to the abode of Sugati - a world of devas, for his kusalakamma as a result of developing mudita. If he happens to, be reborn in the world of human beings or in any form of existence, wherever he may be, he will have the positive result of being equipped with a large number of attendants and the attributes of power and fame.
Manava - 0, Subha, the young lad, esapatipada - this quality of conduct or morality in getting pleased with rejoicing without envy, mahasakkhasamvattanika - tends to contribute towards becoming powerful with a large retinue. It had been preached as such in a concise way. I have composed a relevant motto, as stated below, which may now be recited:
Also, in the matter of developing mudita as stated in the foregoing, it has been instructed in the Visuddhimagga that to practise till simasambheda, the limit of distinction, is over or complete, as in the case of developing karuna. According to the fourth method, it has been explained in the same manner in developing to reach the final attainment of the Third jhana. Now that full explanation has been given relating to the manner of developing mudita, therefore, we shall now wind up the teachings today with a recitation. While reciting, what is recited should be brought into one's mind, and at the same time developing Vipassana through contemplation and noting. Now please follow:
Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!